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Liquid crystalline polyesters are among the first industrially used liquid crystal polymers. They are used for their mechanical properties and heat-resistance. These traits are also important in their application as an abradable seal in jet engines [ citation needed ]. Natural polyesters could have played a significant role in the origins of life. Long heterogeneous polyester chains are known to easily form in a one-pot reaction without catalyst under simple prebiotic conditions.
Polyesters as thermoplastics may change shape after the application of heat. While combustible at high temperatures, polyesters tend to shrink away from flames and self-extinguish upon ignition. Polyester fibers have high tenacity and E-modulus as well as low water absorption and minimal shrinkage in comparison with other industrial fibers. Unsaturated polyesters UPR are thermosetting resins. They are used in the liquid state as casting materials, in sheet molding compounds , as fiberglass laminating resins and in non-metallic auto-body fillers.
They are also used as the thermoset polymer matrix in pre-pregs. Fiberglass-reinforced unsaturated polyesters find wide application in bodies of yachts and as body parts of cars. Increasing the aromatic parts of polyesters increases their glass transition temperature , melting temperature, thermal stability , chemical stability They are then used as prepolymers.
To make a polymer of high molecular weight a catalyst is needed. The most common catalyst is antimony trioxide or antimony tri-acetate:. In , about 10, tonnes Sb 2 O 3 were used to produce around 49 million tonnes polyethylene terephthalate.
In the following table, the estimated world polyester production is shown. Main applications are textile polyester, bottle polyester resin, film polyester mainly for packaging and specialty polyesters for engineering plastics.
According to this table, the world's total polyester production might exceed 50 million tons per annum before the year After the first stage of polymer production in the melt phase, the product stream divides into two different application areas which are mainly textile applications and packaging applications.
In the following table, the main applications of textile and packaging of polyester are listed. This means the polymer melt is directly converted into the textile fibers or filaments without the common step of pelletizing. Such integrated processes are meanwhile established in more or less interrupted processes at one production site. Besides the above-mentioned large processing units to produce staple fiber or yarns, there are ten thousands of small and very small processing plants, so that one can estimate that polyester is processed and recycled in more than 10 plants around the globe.
This is without counting all the companies involved in the supply industry, beginning with engineering and processing machines and ending with special additives, stabilizers and colors. Synthesis of polyesters is generally achieved by a polycondensation reaction. See " condensation reactions in polymer chemistry". The general equation for the reaction of a diol with a diacid is:. In this classical method, an alcohol and a carboxylic acid react to form a carboxylic ester.
To assemble a polymer, the water formed by the reaction must be continually removed by azeotrope distillation. The acid begins as an acid chloride, and thus the polycondensation proceeds with emission of hydrochloric acid HCl instead of water. This method can be carried out in solution or as an enamel.
Aliphatic polyesters can be assembled from lactones under very mild conditions, catalyzed anionically , cationically or metallorganically. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Learn more More Like This. A Dirty Shame Eat Your Makeup The Diane Linkletter Story Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Francine Fishpaw Tab Hunter Todd Tomorrow Edith Massey Cuddles Kovinsky David Samson Elmer Fishpaw Mary Garlington Lu-Lu Fishpaw Ken King Dexter Fishpaw Mink Stole Sandra Sullivan Joni Ruth White La Rue Hans Kramm Bo-Bo Belsinger Rick Breitenfeld Arnold Quackenshaw Michael Watson Freddy Ashton Derek Neal Gospel Bus Hijacker Jim Hill Edit Storyline Francine Fishpaw is an upper middle class suburban housewife in Baltimore.
Edit Did You Know? Trivia The film's closing credits state: Goofs In the opening scene in the living room, as the Fishpaws are arguing, a boom mic is visible. This was corrected for later DVD releases. Don't you know it's bad luck to let retarded people in your home?
Call me a cab this instant! The History of Texas. The History of Halloween. The History of the Internet. Which is the Best Diet? The most popular and one of the earliest uses of polyester was to make polyester suits. What is Offset Printing? The History of Television.
What Is Foil Stamping? Magnetic Photo Clothespin How To. What Is Lumber Lumber is wood in any stage from the time it is cut from a tree through its use in construction or paper. Lumber is cut from a tree through a process called
any of a group of polymers that consist basically of repeated units of an ester and are used especially in making fibers or plastics also: a product (such as a fiber or fabric) composed of polyester. History, uses, and manufacturing of polyester. olyester is a term often defined as “long-chain polymers chemically composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester and a . May 29, · Directed by John Waters. With Divine, Tab Hunter, Edith Massey, David Samson. A suburban housewife's world falls apart when she finds that her pornographer husband is serially unfaithful to her, her daughter is pregnant, and her son is suspected of being the foot-fetishist who's been breaking local women's feet.7/10(K).